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Volume No. 22 2018-06-01 6
Volume No. 23 2018-12-01 4
Volume No. 24 2019-06-01 0

Quantification of Prophyromonas gingivalis In Subgingival Plaque Samples of Smokers and Non-smokers chronic periodontitis patients: A comparative Study

EltaziW.M.1*,Mukhtar M. M.2*Ghandour I. A.3*,Ahmed M.S*4.

Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis considered a true and a major periodontal pathogen. Periodontal diseases are complex, multifactorial, polymicrobial infections characterized by the destruction of tooth-supporting tissues. Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor of periodontal diseases.

Aim: To detect, quantify and compare bacterial load of  P. gingivalis using Real-time PCR in subgingival samples of chronic periodontitis patients between smokers and non-smokers.

Methods: In the present study that held in 2008, Khartoum State, out-patient clinics of Khartoum Teaching Dental Hospital (KTDH) –Sudan, newly diagnosed chronic periodontitis patients were recruited randomly. For each subject clinical examination and subgingival plaque sample of 163 were obtained from mesial surface of molars in a selected posterior sextant (pocket depth ≥ 5 and bleeding on probing) and not used antibiotics in the past three months, were done. DNA extraction of Porphyromonas gingivalis and quantification with SYBR Green I assay real-time PCR technology was done.

Result: Eighty nine were non-smokers while seventy four were smokers. The mean ± SD of plaque accumulate for smokers was 3.00± 0. 00 while the figure for non- smokers was 2.39± 0.49. The mean± SD of the pocket depth was 3.10± 0.90 for smokers while the figure for non-smokers was 1.54±0.60. The mean log-transformed of absolute counts of P. gingivalis in subgingival plaque samples from the smokers was 212.93 ± 424.05 CN/1000 copies0.60 while the figure for non-smokers was 37.30 ± 45.07CN/1000 copies and the highest mean of absolute counts of  P. gingivalis in subgingival plaque samples from smokers was 217.15 ± 484. 23 CN/1000 copies in pocket depth 5mm (shallow pocket).

Conclusion: Smokers show more plaque accumulation and more pocket depth than non-smokers. Tobacco smoking modifies subgingival microbiota particularly P.gingivalis in chronic periodontitis patients and the highest mean of bacterial load in shallow pocket (5 mm).

Iron deficiency anemia: prevalence and associated amongst adolescent females

Malaz Abdelmoniem Mohamed Ahmed1 and Husam Eldin Sadig2

This study investigates the prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) among a population of adolescent females at Alqabas Secondary school in Khartoum, Sudan. The study also explores the association between the possession of IDA and a number of socio-economic and biological factors. The analysis was based on a random sample of 150 participants whose measurements of Complete Blood Check (CBC), blood film, serum iron, serum ferritin and total iron binding capacity were obtained to examine the anemia profile. Statistical methods such as mean, proportions, Chi square test of association and correlation analysis were performed on the collected data to estimate the prevalence of IDA and investigate the association in question. The main findings indicate that the overall prevalence of IDA is estimated by 29.5%, but the disease appears to be more prevalent in younger girls as compared with their older counterparts. In addition, the results show that having IDA is mostly associated with: family income, age, father’s education, whether parents are separated, habits of eating mud and weekly consumption of meet.


Mohammed Babikir M. Elbashir, Abu Bakar Hassan and . Bakri Yousif Mohamed Noor

Background: The introduction of new instruments and methodology in medical laboratory necessitates validation studies of accuracy and precision to ensure that the new method is to meet acceptable standards of performance. Evaluation studies will assess the current performance characteristics of instruments under study. Daily quality control procedures represent the primary tool to continuously monitor the performance of laboratory instruments. Most of medical laboratories in Gazira state either totally not implement these practices or partially been implemented. The main cause is the lack of proper training especially at managerial and decision-making levels. The study question is what kind of errors are present plus how much big are those errors.

Methodology: The study has been conducted during the period from June to October 2017. Precision and accuracy performance characteristics have been thoroughly evaluated for the chemistry analyzers of three major clinical laboratory entities in Wad Medani, Gezira state, Sudan. Three biochemistry analytes were chosen- urea, glucose and cholesterol. Imprecision assessment was done according to the guidelines protocol of Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute CLSI – EP15-A2 while assessment of inaccuracy was carried out according to CLSI– EP6 guidelines. Administrative approvals were obtained from the Managers of selected facilities.

Results: 22 out of 24 imprecision experiments were successfully passed producing 92% pass rate for lab 1. Lab 2 imprecision experiments shown to be acceptable. 24 out of 24 imprecision experiments were successfully passed producing 100% pass rate for lab 2. Unfortunately, 13 out of 24 imprecision experiments were successfully passed producing 54% pass rate for lab 3. 9 out of 17 linearity evaluation and calibration verification results were shown to be successfully verified making a score of 53% for lab 1. 17 out of 18 linearity evaluation and calibration verification results were shown to be successfully verified making a score of 94% for lab 2. Finally, 13 out of 18 linearity evaluation and calibration verification results were shown to be successfully verified making a score of 72% for lab 3.

Conclusion: The aim of this project was to fill the gaps which have been found in the process management among the study population by using a practical example. Errors found are mostly related to issues with calibration processes whether some bad materials might have been used or corrupted micropipette might have been involved.

Recommendations: Wrong practices like refilling reagents and using any material beyond the stated expiration date may be considered as the major contributor on this dilemma. If the lab ought to use an outdated material, it should be strictly monitored by quality control procedures. The culture of preventive maintenance plays a substantial role in the machine performance, spending money on maintenance training program is far less expensive than fixing repeated problems. The study recommends to take these practices into a large scale covering all laboratories in Wad Medani, Gezira state and to be regulated by the local authorities.


Keywords: Method evaluation, Imprecision, Inaccuracy.

For correspondence: Prof. Bakri Yousif Mohamed Nour  (

Conflict of interest: No conflict of interest.

Competence of Midwives Regarding Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage in Maternity Hospitals - Sudan 2017



Postpartum hemorrhage is the major cause of maternal mortality worldwide. Maternal death from obstetrical hemorrhage in the Sudan contributed to 31.2% of the reported maternal mortality cases in 2015. The aim of this study was to assess the competence of midwives regarding prevention of postpartum hemorrhage.  Methods: The study is a descriptive cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted at three maternity hospitals (Omdurman Maternity Teaching Hospital, Omdurman New Saudi Hospital and Sa'ad Abuelella University Hospital) (80) midwives were enrolled in the study. The data were collected by using a questionnaire and an observation checklist, and then they were processed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) – version (16), and presented in simple frequency tables, figures and cross tabulation.

Results: this study found out that: (41.7%) of the respondent midwives had poor knowledge regarding the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage; there is significant relationship between the knowledge of midwives about management of postpartum hemorrhage and their age, years of experience, and qualification (p value=0.001, 0.003, and <0.00.1 respectively); (48.8%) of the respondent midwives had good practice on the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage.

Conclusions: more than forty percent of midwives had poor knowledge; and more than half of them had poor practice, on the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage.