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كلمة العدد

رئيس التحرير

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم و الصلاة و السلام على أشرف المرسلين سيدنا محمد و على ﺁله و صحبه أجمعين.

مجلة النيلين الطبية دفعت بأول أعدادها عام 2010 وهي تصدر كل ثلاثة أشهر بهدف تعزيز ورفع مستوى الخدمات الطبية والصحية في السودان و الان بين يدي قراء المجلة العددالتاسع عشر راجين من المولى عز و جل ان ينفع به العلماء و المتعلمين.  كما تتقدم المجلة بالتهانى للبروفيسور كمال الدين هاشم  لنيله ثقة السيد رئيس الجمهورية وتعيينه مديرا لجامعة النيلين.

رئيس هيئة التحرير


Genetic polymorphisms of catalase and superoxide dismutase in Sudanese patients with vitiligo. A case – control study.

Ali M. Osman, MD, PhDA,Maowia M. Mukhtar, MSc, PhDB,Khalid H.Bakheit, MSc, PhDC,Hamdan Z. Hamdan, MSc, PhDD.

Background:Vitiligo is the most common pigmentary skin disorder. It is a multifactorial polygenic diseaseof unknown aetiology, with epidermal melanocytes destruction.The role of the reactive oxygen species and antioxidant enzymes in its pathogenesis was not fully elucidated. In addition, the disease was not extensively studied at the genes level.

Objective:We sought to to investigate the genotype variations in the CAT-21A/T SNP in the catalase (CAT) gene and in the SOD1-251A/G SNP in the superoxide dismutase1 (SOD1) gene, betweenvitiligo patients and an age – and sex – matched control group.

Methods:DNA was extracted from the whole blood of 54 Sudanese vitiliginous patients and 55 matched control individuals by the spin column procedure.The CAT and SOD1 genes were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR); and the SNPs were genotyped by the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique using HinfI and MspI restriction enzymes.

Results:No significant difference in the alleles’frequencies of the CAT-21A/T and SOD1-251A/G SNPs had been detected between the vitiligo patients and the control group. Moreover, no allele or genotype polymorphism in these two SNPs can be regarded as a risk or a protecting factor for vitiligo.

Conclusion:The CAT-21A/T and SOD1-251A/G SNPs have no association with the pathogenesis of vitiligo.

Key words:Catalase, Genotype, PCR, RFLP, Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), Sudan, Superoxide dismutase, Vitiligo.

Assessment of Serum anticardiolipin and antibet2-glycoporotin1 among Sudanese women with recurrent miscarriage in Khartoum state- Sudan

Isam A sadik1, Ibrahim daoud2,Nagla, E1;ELsadig3; Taha, Rafie.U4,;Abakar , Amer.O5, Mashaer Abidlqader6  

Introduction: Antiphospholipid antibodies (APA) are a heterogeneous family of approximately twenty auto antibodies directed against phospholipids binding plasma proteins
Objective: The aim of the study was to assess of serum anti cardiolipin and serum  anti bet2-glycoporotin1 among some Sudanese woman with recurrent miscarriage.
Methodology: This study was conducted in Turkey teaching Hospital, Omdurman maternity hospital and Khartoum north teaching hospital in great state of Khartoum  from 2014to 2016. The study was performed on 100 patients as the study group and 100 healthy    . The age for the control group and the test group were matched. Serum levels of anticardiolipin`(ACL) and serum antibet2-glycoporotin1 ( Aβ2GPI) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. 
Rustles:   There were significant increase in mean of serum anticardilipin antibodies  I,IgG ,IgM) ; mean ±SD was (IgA =4.62± 1.9 U/mL)  , (12.61± 1.7 U/mL), (6.16± 1.5 U/mL) for patients with recurrent  miscarriage compared with control group; mean ±SD (3.52± 3.4 U/mL), (1.92± .48 u/mL), (1.77± .82 u/mL)   P value (0 .006), (0.000), (0.000) respectively. The same significant difference (p=0.000). was observed with the   serum antibet2-glycoprotein1 in the study group compared to the control group (10.57± 6.5  vs 3.8± 2.5  ) respectively. There was a significant correlation (r.0.239, P<0.017) between the levels of( IgG )ACL and(IgG) anti-beta2 GPI antibodies. ACL frequency was reported in 32% of patients with recurrent miscarriage and in 2% of control group.  
Conclusions: A significant association was observed between recurrent spontaneous miscarriage and the presence of serum anticardiolipin(IgA,IgG,IgM)and, antibet2-glycoporotin1  (IgG). Also, there was a significant relationship between positive anticardiolipin (Ig G ) and antibet2-glycoporotin1  .  
Keywords: anticardiolipin , antibet2-glycoporotin1  , recurrent miscarriage 

Using E-mail to Support Continuous Assessment of Medical Students in Omdurman Islamic University (OIU) 2011

1.    Mohammed MA.M Ibnouf M.B.B.S, MRCSEd, MSc, MD Lecturer of Surgery and in the Department of Integration, Omdurman University School of Medicine.
2.    Ahmed Elmerghani FRCSEd. Associate Professor of Surgery, Omdurman University School of
3.    Mohammed A.M Ibnouf FRCSEd. Professor of Surgery, Omdurman University School of
4.    Khalid Elsir MD. Assistant Professor of Surgery. Head, Department of Surgery, Omdurman University School of
5.    Abdulaziz Sidig MD.  Assistant Professor of Surgery, Omdurman University School of
6.    Ahmed M. Adam MD. Assistant professor of Surgery,Head, Department of Integration, Omdurman University School of

In the last two decades, e-learning was introduced to the developing countries. With globalization, we anticipate that the millennial generation would expect a cut-edge education and assessment.  

Objectives: To assess the adherence of students to the computer and internet, to describe the pattern of technology use among the students, to recognizestudents' opinion about sending cases via the email, and to assess the response to the new experience.

Methodology: A Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in the School of medicine screening the students’ potentials toward computers during the course of surgery. The students were asked to send clerking of 20 cases via email; as part of their continuous assessment. A structured questionnaire was designed and reviewed. All students were involved with total coverage of 90%, with no criteria for exclusion and no sampling.

The results:Participants were 183 students.142(77.6%) of students have computers and 19(10.4%) have easy access to the internet. Yet, 60 (32.8%) had no email before the course of surgery. This was decreased to 36(19.7%) after the course. Students' opinion about sending clerking via email was easy in 70(38.3%) and difficult in 53(29%). Students who like to have an online hotlinks with their supervisors, seniors and administration were 136(74.3%). Students who consider the computer training to be the responsibility of the Faculty were 141 (77.1%), but 135(73.8%) consider that to be self-responsibility.

Conclusion: more than two third of the students have computers and access to the internet. Favorable attitude was expressed by the students toward e-learning and e-assessment. Research promotes the students' capabilities as it works as a potentiating initiative. 


Keywords: e-learning, PBL, ICT, students’ assessment, IT, OIU, Sudan.

Evaluation of American and WHO Cut off Limits of Fifty Gram Glucose Challenge Test  for Diabetes Mellitus Screening in Pregnant Women

Mohd Nagmeldin, Hind A. Elsiddig, Mohamed Babikir

This is a prospective cross-sectional study included two hundreds gestational Sudanese ladies who were selected with the same inclusion criteria. The study was conducted in Omdurman teaching hospital and Baghdadi charitable center from Jan2008 to Jul 2009.

The aim of this study was to compare sensitivy and specificity of the American cut off limit (≥ 130mg/dl) and the WHO one ( ≥ 140mg/dl), for fifty gram glucose challenge test as screening test for gestational diabetes mellitus. Also to study the percentages of positive glucosuria with or without GDM (Gestational diabetes mellitus).

Method: 200 venous sampleswere collected and glucose oxidase spectrophotometeric method was used to detect glucose concentration .

Prevalence of Hypertension among Sudanese Rural Population, Sinnar State- Sudan

Badria Abd Alla Mohamed Elfaki and Mustafa Khidir Mustafa Elnimeiri

Background: Hypertension is one of the major risk factors of cardiovascular diseases which increased the mortality and morbidity among people.

The objective: The overall objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence rate of hypertension and its relation to socio-demographic factors among the study population.

Materials and methods: A community-based descriptive study was conducted in rural district at Alsakania town, Sinnar State. The study participants were the resident citizens in age of 25-64 years, hypertensive and non-hypertensive and permanently resident in the study area with exclusion of the pregnant woman and the visitors. A cluster sampling technique was used and the total sample size mounted to 341 participants. Data were collected using standardized administered questionnaire and then analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0.

Results: The study revealed that the prevalence rate of hypertension was 21.1% among the study population, the prevalence rate of systolic hypertension was 5.9% while the prevalence rate of diastolic hypertension was 10.0% with statistically insignificant differences between men and women (P value 0.409). The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures among the participants on cross tabulation with gender, yielded statistically insignificant difference (P value=0.409). Higher significant prevalence of hypertension was observed in age group of 55-64; the prevalence of hypertension in this age group was 18.6%, systolic hypertension was 13.6% while the diastolic hypertension was 11.9% (P value= 0.003). Nevertheless, the study yielded insignificant statistically differences of high prevalence of hypertension among the study participants in relation to some socio-demographic factors (P value>0.005).

Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension among the population was relatively high, with higher significant prevalence among the participants in the age group of 55-64 year, married and those who were resident in the study area for ten years or more.

Keywords: Hypertension, Prevalence, Rural, Sudan 

Source of knowledge regarding diabetic retinopathy among Sudanese adult diabetic patients at Makkah Eye Complex- Khartoum Sudan; 2014

Hamadnalla SH., ElnimeiriM.K. Saleem M. A.

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic illness with prevalence of 171 million worldwide; as a result most of body organs and particularly the eye sensitive tissues are affected. Recently diabetes was termed as one of main causes of blindness. There are about 126 million people worldwide affected by diabetic retinopathy (DR) with 37 million patients suffering vision threatening DR. However, most of people are unaware of ocular complication due to long term DM.

Methods: This was a cross sectional hospital-based study included 309 subjects ages 15 years and above who attended Makkah Eye Complex. A standardized pre-tested and pre-coded questionnaire was used for collecting the required data. The study was ethically approved from the Institutional Review Board of Al-Neelain University and Khartoum State Ministry of Health; with the permission of Makkah Research Center (MRC).

Results: Regarding awareness about which part of the eye affected by diabetic retinopathy 46.6 % of the participants stated the retina while 40.1 % (124) mentioned that they did not know. Regarding awareness about treatment of diabetic retinopathy; 39.91% of the participants mentioned medication, 25.82% of them mentioned surgery while 23.47% said by laser.The source of knowledge among subjects was found to be as follows; 36.2% from media, 18.1% from friends and relatives while 17.8% from physicians, general practitioners and ophthalmologists.

Conclusion: The number of diabetes mellitus patients who received advice (at the point of disease detection) from doctors or medical personnel to see an ophthalmologist was a minority, although it is a very valuable advice since delayed detection of retinopathy leads to serious outcomes and complicates the management. Awareness program and counseling for diabetic patients towards the fact that diabetic retinopathy is manageable disorder if intervention took place in time.