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Volume No. 1 2011-10-08 18
Volume No. 2 0000-00-00 3
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Volume No. 4 2012-03-23 11
Volume No. 5 2012-06-01 9
Volume No. 6 2012-09-01 7
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Volume No. 8 2013-01-01 12
Volume No. 9 2013-03-01 8
Volume No. 10 2013-06-01 10
Volume No. 11 2013-08-01 9
Volume No. 12 2013-11-01 10
Volume No. 13 2014-03-01 9
Volume No. 14 2014-06-01 6
Volume No. 15 2014-09-01 7
Volume No. 16 2016-04-01 8
Volume No. 17 2016-05-01 5
Volume No. 18 2016-06-01 5
Volume No. 19 2017-02-01 7
Volume No. 20 2017-03-01 8
Volume No. 21 2018-01-01 5
Volume No. 22 2018-06-01 6
Volume No. 23 2018-12-01 4
Volume No. 24 2019-06-01 0

In Vitro Callus Induction and Antimicrobial Activities of Callus  and Seeds Extracts of Nigella sativa L.

Mawahib E.M. ElNour and Futooh Z. A. Mahmood

In this study, extracts of Nigella sativa seeds and its  induced callus were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against four standard bacteria (Bacillus subtilus , Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli and  Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two fungi (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger) by using agar diffusion method. 

To induce callus, hypocotyls and cotyledons explants from N. sativa were cultured in MS  medium supplemented with different types and different concentrations of growth regulators. Explants of N. sativa showed a rapid rate of initiation of callus after two weeks when grown in MS media  supplemented with NAA at 1.0 mg/l and 5.0 mg/l of NAA respectively, while a slow rate of induction of callus observed when the hypocotyls grown in MS media supplemented with 5.0 mg/l 2,4-D and 0.5 mg/l 2,4-D, when the explants were cotyledons. The NAA in this study was found to be the suitable hormone regulator for N. sativa for both types of explants used.              

Methanolic extracts of seeds and callus of N. sativa showed activity against Escherichia coli with inhibition zone (21mm)&(23mm) respectively and no antifungal activity was observed for both seeds and callus extracts.

The antibacterial activity of Penicillin and Gentamicin were determined against the tested bacteria and compared with the antibacterial activity of the tested extracts of N. sativa seeds and callus. Methanolic extracts show antimicrobial activity against E. coli higher than that of Gentamicin and Penicillin at 10µg/disc.

Phytochemical screening for the seeds and callus extracts indicated the presence of secondary metabolites  such as alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins which may be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the tested extracts. 

Molecular Markers Assessment of Chloroquine Resistance to Plasmodium falciparum Isolates in Wad Medani District, Gezira State, Sudan 

Bakri Y. M. Nour, Ahmed A. Mohamadani , Osman K. Saeed  & Henk Schallig

Molecular surveillance of antimalarials resistance is of significant importance for the  endemic countries, the introduction of  polymerase chain reaction (PCR) into malaria research becomes an essential tool to investigate several genetic mutations to predict or monitor antimalarial drugs resistance . 
In Wad Medani district central Sudan, 51 blood isolates were collected in filter paper from individuals infected with P. falciparum,  DNA was extracted from each sample and then subjected to  molecular analysis for chloroquine transporter (pfcrt) and multi-drugs resistance1 (Pfmdr1), using the polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism ( PCR-RFLP ) method.
The results showed that  30/40 (75%) were pfcrt at codon 76 mutant  and 10/40(25%) were wild type while the results of pfmdr1 at codon 86 demonstrated that 22/37(59.5%) were mutant and 15/37(40.5%) wild type, both mutations were abundant in 19 of the isolates while each mutaion alone was abundant in 11 and  3  for  pfcrt  and pfmdr1 respectively, indicating that the frequency of CQ resistant mutations was  33/40(82.5%).
This study concluded that the mutations in pfcrt and pfmdr genes were abundant with high frequency among the P. falciparum population

Uterine fibroid and pregnancy outcomes in Khartoum Teaching Hospital, Sudan 

Moawia E Hummeida, Moawia Ali, Ali Mohamed Ali, Abdel Azim Ali

Objectives: To investigate the effect of uterine fibroids on pregnancy outcomes.

Methods: This case-control study was conducted in the Khartoum Hospital, Sudan, during June 2011 and through May 2012. Cases were pregnant women who have uterine fibroids, diagnosed by ultrasound scan or discovered accidentally during caesarean section. One consecutive pregnant woman who have no uterine fibroids per case acted as control. We included all pregnant women who attended the labour ward, or planned for either normal or operative delivery, in the hospital, during the study period, and accepted to participate in the study.

Results: Using logistic regression analyses there was significant association between: delayed to conceive (CI= 2.9 – 11.1, OR= 5.7, P= <0.001),  miscarriage (CI= 3.7 – 18, OR= 26.4, P= 0.001), experience of pain during pregnancy necessitating hospital admission (CI= 4.1 – 25.7, OR= 10.3, P= <0.001), antepartum haemorrhage (CI= 0.01 – 0.5, OR= 0.07, P= 0.010), uterine atony (CI= 0.02 – 0.56, OR= 0.1, P= 0.008), need for blood transfusion as a result of uterine atony (CI= 0.8 –6.5, OR= 2.2, P= 0.032),  and uterine fibroids in pregnancy, compared to women without uterine fibroids. Pregnancy with uterine fibroids also had a higher unplanned caesarean section rate (CI= 0.1 –0.8, OR= 0.3, P= 0.014), but there was no differences in perinatal outcomes (Delivery at term, living births, birth weight, and preterm birth. between the two groups of the study.

Conclusion: Uterine fibroids increase the risk of adverse obstetrics outcomes during pregnancy and childbirth in a varying ways. This information can be used to aid counselling and risk-stratifying patients.

The Proximate Fertility Determinants among Sudanese Women in an urban community, Case study of El Dueim town

Asia Mohamed Sharif

Fertility is one of the factors responsible for the pattern of population change that is believed to be taking place in Sudan, this study is an attempt to investigate some factors affecting fertility in a Sudanese urban setting, taking El  Dueim town as a case study.

Bongaarts,s model for the" proximate determinants of fertility" is used as the analytical  framework . Marriage pattern, contraception and post-partum infecundity are analyzed as the main proximate determinants that affect fertility directly. A sample of ever –married women aged 15-49 years was selected from the 28 neighborhoods in El Duim town. The sample was selected randomly using stratified cluster sampling procedure. The1993’s census’ projection of El Dueim town formed the sampling frame. The data was collected by face to face interview using a designed questionnaire. Education, occupation and type of residence have a considerable effect on the proximate determinants of fertility. Ever-use, knowledge and current use of contraceptives are found to be more common among the women who are educated, engaged in gainful jobs and reside in the town centre & government houses; post-partum infecundity periods are longer among the uneducated, unemployed and those who reside in fourth class neighborhood. The long period of infecundity is considered as the main mean to delay birth among this group. The effective use of contraceptive is the main mean to delay birth, which compensate the short period of post-partum infecundity among the former group.

The clinical importance of anti-CCP in early diagnosis of Sudanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis

Shaaban Khudair, Mowahib Al Edressy, Yousif Osman, Mohammed Abbas, Ahmed Bolad


Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory autoimmune disorder; it is the most common inflammatory arthritis in the world. The early diagnosis and effective treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can improve the clinical outcome of the disease. Recently, anti-Cyclic-Citrullinated protein antibodies (Anti-CCP) are found to be more specific to RA arthritis although in the early stages when the arthritis is undifferentiated. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical importance and the prevalence of anti-CCP in early diagnosis of Sudanese patients with RA.


This work was a cross-sectional study conducted at Al Ribat teaching hospital (from June 2012 to ? 2014). The study sample included 56 Sudanese patients, known patients of RA who fulfilled the ACR criteria. Demographic and clinical data were collected by questionnaires. All patients and controls sera were investigated for anti-CPP by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).


The mean age of RA patients in this study was 46.0 (±11.7) years. The control group consisted of 56 Sudanese apparently healthy subjects, 27 (48%) of them were female with mean age of 37 ±17.2years. The anti-CCP antibodies were detected in 60.7% of cases, and in two (3.6%) of the control group. The sensitivity of anti-CCP was 60.7% and specificity of 96.4%. Anti-CCP test has a maximum proportionate reduction in uncertainty (PRU) of 94% for a positive result and 59% for a negative result.


Anti-CCP antibody has a higher diagnostic specificity and positive predictive value than rheumatoid factor; however its sensitivity was low.

The consent of each patient was obtained prior to commencement of data collection.